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Standard Penetration Test: Overview

Standard Penetration Test: Overview

Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is one of the main methods of determining in situ soil structure, bearing capacity, and other engineering properties. In addition, the angle of shearing resistance of cohesionless soils and the unconfined compressive strength of cohesive soils can also be derived from it. Invented in the USA back in 1925, the penetration test was standardized in terms of required equipment and procedure to compare test results from different investigations.

The penetration test is carried out in a borehole, thus providing representative soil samples.

Read on to find out all the essential information about the Standard Penetration Test, its purpose, procedure features, benefits, and drawbacks.

What is the Purpose of the Standard Penetration Test?

The issue of weak foundations of different structures is usually caused by poor investigation of the properties of the soil used for it. Equal settlement of any building or construction is only possible on the high-bearing capacity soil.

Like any other penetrometer test, SPT is an essential tool for engineers on construction sites. Thus, construction stability and a security engineer salary largely depend on their ability to conduct a standard penetration test.

Primary purposes of SPT:

  • Extraction of soil sample for identifying its type and nature and multiple depths;
  • It allows for determining soil penetration resistance at different levels to identify its properties.

Standard Penetration Tests – The Procedure

Before diving into the description of the SPT procedure, it is essential to note that this test requires precision and specific tools. In addition, the level of engineer’s experience and care on site is crucial for accurate and reliable results.

The procedure of the standard penetration test

  • The required sampling depth borehole is pre-drilled (the sample tube is 50.8 mm in diameter and around 650 mm in length).
  • The tube is driven into the soil with an anvil of 63.5 kg, dropping precisely from 0.76 m height.
  • First, the sampler is driven 150 mm into the pre-drilled hole (counting from its bottom). Then, the n value of anvil blows required to move it another 300 mm is recorded as an N30 count.

Both drilling and stabilization of the borehole require a high level of care.

Factors like the force/energy of the drill rod, its impedance, and the drilling method have an impact on the results.

Relative Density and Bearing Capacity of The Soil

The bearing capacity of the soil represents the maximum load per unit area, which it can support without moving. This factor is closely connected with the soil type, which depends on its relative density. There are five main types: very loose, loose, medium, dense, and very dense soil. The difference is in the bulk density that can be found within 1600 kg/m3 (very loose) and 2100 kg/m3 (dense). Everything that exceeds these limits is called “very dense soil.”

Test also accounts for the nature of the soil, which can be cohesive, cohesionless (non-cohesive), or rocky.

Correlations in Penetration Test

Before using the values obtained from the penetration test in empirical correlations, the value of N has to undergo IS 2131 – 1981 correlations:

Dilatancy Correction

Clays and fine sands below the water table tend to have pore water pressure that drives the resistance of the soil to penetration up. Therefore, if the n value is higher than 15 on sands, the following correlation is required:

Nc = 15 + 0.5 (Nr -15)

Nr is an observed (recorded) value, while Nc is the corrected one.

Overburden Pressure Correlation

Overburden pressure has been proven to affect the standard penetration resistance. The measured n value differs depending on the depth as the confining pressure increases. Hence, the following correction is necessary:

Nc = Cn*N

Cn here is the correction factor for the overburden pressure.

Standard Penetration Test – Pros and Cons

SPT is a reliable and widely used penetrometer test. First, however, it is essential to outline its main benefits and drawbacks:


Standard penetration test has the following advantages:

  1. It is simple and cost-effective
  2. Allows collecting samples for further investigations of the soil
  3. If carried out carefully provides an insight into the actual soil behavior on the construction site
  4. It applies to multiple soil conditions.


As for the disadvantages:

  1. The reliability of the results strongly depends on the competence of the operator
  2. Limited applications for rocky soils
  3. SPT is relatively time-consuming.

Closing Thoughts

A standard penetration test is an effective tool for determining the crucial properties of the soil used for construction purposes. Data derived from carefully conducted SPT allows understanding of the type and nature of the soil. The test is pretty simple but requires precise equipment and experienced operators to get the most accurate results.

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What You Need to Know About Bitcoin Laws

Since its inception in 2009, Bitcoin has gone from being the first to the largest crypto blockchain on the market. A respected store of value and medium of exchange, Bitcoin has now found its way into the hands of mainstream investors and even some pension funds.

Over time, Bitcoin’s legality is slowly maturing, but this also means that Bitcoin laws are still largely misunderstood and vary from country to country, and occasionally even state to state. If you have any questions about the legality of Bitcoin, read on to better understand the state of Bitcoin in the eyes of the law.

The Legal Status of Bitcoin

In many developed countries, Bitcoin ownership and trading are legal. That being said, the confusion that comes over the legal status of Bitcoins stems largely from the fact that for most of its existence, Bitcoin was in a grey area of finance. Bitcoin was officially legalised in Australia in 2017, which means for many years Bitcoin was neither legal nor illegal.

Although Bitcoin is now legal in Australia, there is still a lot of ambiguity in the space. For example, crypto is recognized as property in the UK since 2020, but the country has no laws or regulations regarding its trading. In the Us, Bitcoin is not illegal, but government agencies have no laws or regulations pinned down to help regulate it.

Currently, most countries tend to lump Bitcoin in with other forms of financial assets and regard it as property for tax reasons. While users tend to think of and use Bitcoin as a currency, only El Salvador recognizes it as a legal tender. Many other countries see Bitcoin as a challenge to stability, with many countries banning it outright.

Here are the countries where Bitcoin is illegal: India (not illegal but highly restricted), Bolivia, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Vietnam.

Here are the countries where Bitcoin is legal: Japan, Germany, Finland, France, United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia.

Regulating Illicit Activity

The reason governments and policymakers want to regulate those who trade Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies is that the space is used heavily for illicit activities such as money laundering and the like.

With all the ambiguity surrounding Bitcoin’s legal status, government agencies tend to regulate the exchanges where cryptocurrencies are bought and sold, instead of regulating the blockchains themselves.

That being said, regulating blockchains themselves is a very difficult, almost impossible task, so regulators try their best to target crypto exchanges. This means that they target on and off-ramps that allow crypto to be converted, and this has resulted in exchanges keeping records, verifying identities and complying with reporting requirements the local governing body has set up.

For an average customer, undertaking Bitcoin legally simply means filling out a know your customer (KYC) form, which allows your identity to be confirmed for security purposes and filing taxes correctly.

Tax Responsibilities

Bitcoin is considered property, rather than currency by many countries, and so is taxed in the same manner as property that can appreciate in value over time. This manner of tax is known as capital gain tax (CGT) and requires owners to pay a percentage of profits made since the coin’s initial purchase.

The rate of CGT differs from country to country, and countries such as the UK have an allowance in place before you need to pay a CGT, and other countries such as the US have different rates depending on the length of time the asset was held. Although Bitcoin laws dictate that CGT should be paid for appreciation in value, people who trade crypto as their profession are required to consider gains as income. This means that traders and businesses that trade crypto commercially should treat profits as a source of income, not a capital gain.

The Bottom Line

As Bitcoin continues to grow in popularity and become adopted by more and more people, laws and regulations are now starting to be developed. In countries such as Australia, US, UK and Japan regulatory framework is being put together to help establish a firmer legal ground for Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Some in the Bitcoin world are being put off by legal interference, and others such as investors and traditional firms are waiting around for clearer laws before getting involved. We have found that as long as you are well educated about the legalities of Bitcoin, you’re less likely to run into any issues. To learn about the types of crypto tokens, check out Swyftx.

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Finding The Best Broker To Help You With Investing Your Money

The world of investing can be confusing when you are not used to dealing with investments. For this reason, many people will choose a trusted investment company to help them manage their investment portfolios and advise them on investments they should consider. Many companies are offering this type of service, so you will want to shop around to find the best one for your needs when you look to start investing your money. Below are some tips to help you with your search to start getting your money working harder for you.

Decide How Much Yu Want To Invest

Before you start looking for a reputable investment company, you will first need to decide how much money you will invest in your portfolio. You will need to ensure you do not stretch yourself too far when investing, and also be aware that your money is at risk, and you can end up losing it. Once you have decided how much you will invest, you can start looking for a reputable company to help you plan your investments.

Ask For Recommendations For Investment Companies

An excellent place to start your search for an investment company is by asking people you know if they have any suggestions you can consider. You will want to speak to people with an investment portfolio and use a company to help them manage their investments. You may get a few suggestions from the people you know, and you can add these to a list before looking online for more companies.

Looking For Investment Companies Online

You can also use the internet to help you find investment companies that may be suitable for your needs, and you will need to do research on any potential ones you find. You can add any decent ones you find to your list and look at their online reputations by using social media to see what their customers think of their service. LinkedIn is an excellent platform to do this, but you can also use others such as Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter to help you.

Speaking To The Investment Companies

Once you have whittled down the companies on your list to two or three, you will need to contact them and speak to them about your intentions. You will need to let them know your investment budget and the level of risk you are comfortable with, and they can help advise you on the best investment opportunities that suit your needs. You will need to compare the fees and commissions each company charges and select the one that you are most comfortable with to advise you. Take your time deciding which one to use, and you can help safeguard your future and create an investment portfolio that increases in value.

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Rare Metals IRA Investing: Frequently Asked Questions!

Investing in rare metals through an IRA is a great way to secure your financial future. However, you should know a few things before you invest your IRA in rare metals. This article will answer some of the most frequently asked questions about rare metal IRA investing.

1) What are the benefits of investing in rare metals?

There are several benefits to investing in rare metals. First, they are a safe investment. Unlike stocks and other commodities, the value of rare metals is not as volatile and is less likely to fluctuate. Second, they are tangible assets. Unlike digital currencies like Bitcoin, rare metals are physical items that you can hold in your hand. This makes them a valuable asset in times of uncertainty. Finally, they offer a hedge against inflation. When the value of traditional investments like stocks and bonds declines, the value of rare metals tends to rise.

2) Can I invest in any rare metal?

The answer to this question depends on the specific IRA company you are using. Some companies only allow you to invest in certain types of rare metals, while others allow you to invest in various metals. It is important to do your research before selecting an IRA company to know which metals are eligible for investment.

3) What are the tax implications of investing in rare metals?

The tax implications of investing in rare metals depend on the type of investment. For example, if you invest in rare physical metals, you will need to pay taxes on your profits when you sell them. On the other hand, if you invest in a rare metal ETF or mutual fund, your profits will be taxable as regular income.

4) How do I start investing in rare metals?

The process of investing in rare metals depends on the company you choose. Some companies allow you to invest directly in physical metals, while others require investing in a fund or ETF. Therefore, it is important to do your research before selecting an IRA company to ensure that they offer the type of investment you are interested in.

5) What are the risks of investing in rare metals?

Like any investment, there are risks associated with investing in rare metals. The value of these assets can be volatile, and they may not perform as well as traditional investments like stocks and bonds. Therefore, it is important to do your research before investing and understand the specific risks associated with each type of metal.

In conclusion, investing in rare metals through an IRA is great to secure your financial future. However, by understanding the benefits and risks associated with these investments, you can make informed decisions about how to protect your money best.

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Forex Trading

Should beginners trade options in Singapore?

In Singapore, trading options is a popular investment choice with the fast-growing financial market. However, most people find it difficult to enter this field as they lack knowledge in business and investing. It is a good idea for beginners not to trade options.

In an ideal world, everyone is knowledgeable in all areas of life and can make the right decision when required. In reality, however, most individuals are ignorant about investments and rely heavily on their advisers, which works well when you have a multi-million dollar portfolio that requires constant attention from financial industry experts or when you commit your wealth into passive income stocks that require tinkering less frequently.

But what happens when you have a small amount of money in your bank account and want to invest in something that will generate income? Like many other beginners, you may consider trading options as a way of generating income.

What is an option?

An option is a contract that allows the buyer to purchase or sell an underlying asset at a specific price during or by a certain date. For instance, if the stock price of Company A was $1.50 mid-January, you can buy one call option with expiry on 31st January at prices ranging from $1.72 to $2.00 per share, which means you are guaranteed to receive between $1.72 and $2.00 when selling your shares before expiration day even though the actual market price may be lower than this range, but not higher than it.

It is worthwhile noting that the greater the period before the expiry date, the more expensive it is. Unfortunately for beginners, this means your financial losses may become larger as time passes.

Trading options in Singapore

Regarding important factors to note when trading options, the high risks involved should be a significant concern. Like all contracts, options come with expiration dates which mean they can expire any minute without notice, and you will lose all your money if the stock price does not move at least once within that time frame.

In addition, stocks do not always follow market trends and investors need to pay attention to the underlying assets; otherwise, they may end up losing their investment entirely if an unexpected event occurs suddenly, such as company liquidation, and this is something you cannot predict unless you are a professional trader yourself.

It is not a good idea for beginners to trade options as they lack the knowledge and experience required to understand option contracts and read between the lines of market trends.

Other ways for beginners to invest in the stock market

Although beginners can turn their loss into profit by trading Singapore stock options, there are still other ways to make money from stock markets without relying on highly volatile investments such as options. In addition, it is also advisable for them to invest in passive income stocks, which do not demand much work from traders but usually provide stable returns daily or monthly.

Beginner traders must have a Plan B

It should be noted that this article was written with beginners in mind, and those who have never traded before, rather than experienced investors who know what they’re doing. It will be beneficial for you to know about creating a ‘Plan B’ in the unfortunate event that your investment does not go as planned.

You can rest easy knowing you have a plan B to fall back on, risking less money while still leaving you room for growth should your potentially successful trade fail to pan out. If trading is your passion and risk-taking is something you enjoy, it’s worth considering investing in options but make sure you’ve done your research first.

Bottom Line

Beginner traders interested in options trading are advised to use an experienced and reputable online broker from Saxo Bank and trade on a demo account before investing real money.

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Forex Trading

How to Ensure You Pay the Right Amount Of Tax

Unfortunately, as the old saying goes, the only two certainties in life are death and taxes. Indeed, if you are looking for assistance to make sure you pay the right amount of tax you should think about contacting a specialist in tax as soon as possible. You should also be aware that an expert on tax advice can provide you with enough information so that you can make sure you understand how much tax you should be paying and if you are making the correct type of income tax payments per year. As a result, if you are looking for a company providing tax services in Rotherham, you should think about checking a search engine as you will be able to identify several companies that you can talk to.

Another way that you can ensure you pay the right amount of tax is to ensure your accounts are correct at all times. In addition, you should be aware that you may have to pay a particular amount of business tax, if you operate a commercial entity. As a result, if you are looking for advice about your personal or business tax situation, you should think about contacting an expert as soon as possible as they will be able to provide you with the best advice possible for your situation. If you want to make sure you pay the right amount of tax you should think about contacting a specialist in tax as soon as possible.

  • Make sure you pay the right amount of tax
  • Contact an expert in tax
  • Understand how much tax you should be paying

Therefore, in conclusion, if you want to make sure you are paying the correct amount of personal or business income tax, you should make sure you talk to a tax specialist in your local area as soon as possible.




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Best Qualities to Look for in Mortgage Brokers

Many people utilise a broker to assist them in locating and finalising a house loan while they are looking for a new one. The good ones are rewarded for their efforts, simplifying a sometimes complex and perplexing process. To assist you in finding the correct loan, the broker must have expertise and insight. Before you use them for your investment, be sure that they have at least these four qualities.

Focused on the Details

Mortgages are notoriously difficult financial transactions to understand. If your broker isn’t on top of their game, dozens or even hundreds of facts might easily slip between the cracks. During your interviews with prospective brokers, offer high marks to those who return your calls promptly and who are on time for appointments.

Request a list of references from suppliers with which they do business, such as appraisers and title agencies, to ensure that they are trustworthy. These individuals rely on detail-oriented brokers in the same way that you do.


When desperate mortgage brokers are looking for loans, they will go to any length to get them. Keep an eye out for people who make extravagant promises. These folks are often engaging in a bait-and-switch strategy in an attempt to attract you into their clutches and hold you captive.

The chances are good that they’ll try to sneak in some hidden costs or that they’ll try to adjust your rate right before you leave town. It’s the only way that they’ll be able to deliver on a deal that appears too good to be true.

No Hidden Surprises in Terms of Fees

Most of the top mortgage brokers in Brisbane work very hard for their money, and they deserve to be adequately paid for their efforts. If one is honest and delivers something worth to the table, they will have no difficulty sharing their salary. Keep an eye out for people who grow apprehensive about expenses or avoid addressing them altogether.

Keep Your Best Interest in Mind

Keep an eye out for a mortgage broker who is pressed for time to finalise the transaction. Typically, this will be a private individual selling the loan to further their own personal interests rather than yours. Your mortgage specialist should work with you to thoroughly examine a mortgage in the context of your current financial circumstances. Avoid the broker who attempts to get you to take up a larger mortgage by telling you that “it’s only a few dollars more each month.”

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Forex Trading

Stock Market APIs: How to Get Real-Time Data Into Your Applications

If you’re a developer, then you know that the world of finance is a big deal. And if you’re looking to get into the world of finance, you need to know about stock data API. These APIs allow you to get real-time data from the stock market and incorporate it into your applications. This blog post will discuss stock market APIs and how to use them in your applications.

What is stock market APIs?

Stock market APIs allow you to access real-time data from the stock market. This data can be used to power your financial applications and better understand how the stock market works. Various stock market APIs are available, each with its own unique set of features.

How to use stock market APIs in your applications

Now that you know what stock market APIs are let’s look at how to use them in your applications. The first step is to find an API that meets your needs. Various APIs are available, each with its own unique set of features. Once you’ve found an API, you need to register for an account and get your API key. The next step is to start coding! Most APIs come with libraries for various programming languages, so getting started is easy. Include the library in your project and start making calls to the API.

The next step is to test your application. Ensure that you’re sending the correct parameters and getting the expected results. Once you’ve verified that everything is working correctly, you can deploy your application and start using it in production.

Finally, don’t forget to keep track of your usage. Most APIs limit the number of requests you can make per day. Make sure that you’re not going over your limit, or you may end up getting suspended.

Several famous stock market APIs are available, each with its own unique set of features. Here are some of the most popular:

Google Finance API – The Google Finance API is another popular option. It allows you to get historical and real-time data from over 100 different exchanges.

Bloomberg API – The Bloomberg API is the most comprehensive stock market API available. It offers access to real-time data, historical data, and news feeds from over 300 different exchanges.

Now that you know all about stock market APIs start using them in your applications! They are a great way to get real-time data into your applications and better understand the stock market. Happy coding!

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When to Look for a Tax Advisor

Doing taxes isn’t something that you will become an expert of simply after becoming an adult, which means that you will run into problems from time to time. If you don’t have multiple sources of income, you can do your taxes yourself with a little help from friends and family members. But, there are certain situations when getting help from a tax advisor becomes inevitable.

Started a Business

If you have started a business, you might be making more money than before. But an increase in income also means an increase in taxes. However, the higher your income, the more difficult it will be to do taxes on your own. So, after starting a business, you will need the help of a tax advisor so you can keep everything in check and pay your taxes on time.

Went Through Something Life-Changing

Did you get married recently? Or maybe had a baby? If something life-changing happened to you, it could also affect your tax situation. When that happens, you should hire a tax advisor in Stourbridge so you don’t run into any problems later. The tax advisor will explain your new tax situation to you and make sure that you file your taxes on time.

You Don’t Get the Tax Law

Even if you have only one source of income, doing taxes can get pretty confusing. But if the tax law is too complicated for you, you can turn to a tax advisor for help instead of handling the task yourself. A tax advisor will help you file your taxes and explain the tax law to you so you can understand it better.

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Is It Possible For Cryptocurrency To Go Green In The Future?

From the developments that we have seen since modern times, you can put forward a sensible viewpoint that digital currency is the most earth-shattering. As a result, finance has generally opposed the change of trade cryptocurrency. Finally, however, virtual monetary forms — conceived through the blockchain design — got through the divider. Without a doubt, the area has upset the economy and left worldwide national financiers scrambling for a response.

Further, ordinary people on an India crypto app love digital money resources. One essential benefit over customary resources like stocks and securities is that the computerized markets are continually exchanging. There is no halting for breaks, occasions or cataclysmic events. As long as web access and willing brokers are readily available, Godzilla could frighten the world, but virtual monetary standards will continue without a hitch.

Be that as it may, cryptos like Bitcoin on the crypto India app do not adore for a basic explanation: they devour a vast load of energy, and BTC is by a long shot the greatest consumer of energy. Given data from the University of Cambridge’s Bitcoin power utilization record, BTC excavators devour approximately 130 Terawatt-long stretches of energy. That is around 0.6% of worldwide power utilization and essentially a fantastic sum.

Since Bitcoin is turning into a store of significant worth rather than practical cryptographic money, you can suggest that its dreadful failure lines up with its recently discovered reason. Nonetheless, that rationale won’t fly with the people pondering natural maintainability. With recent college grads and Generation Z progressively stressed over the planet’s wellbeing, it serves everybody’s advantage to turn virtual monetary crypto investment green.

A drive exists called the Crypto Climate Accord, which plans to progress the crypto asset industry (all blockchains) to 100% environmentally friendly power. If this proposition acquires a foothold, this could hypothetically grow the crypto contributing area’s base. Here are the blockchain reward tokens that could appreciate critical advantages:

  • Ethereum (ETH)
  • Bitcoin Cash (BCH)
  • Litecoin (LTC)
  • Monero (MXR)
  • Zcash (ZEC)
  • DigiByte (DGB)
  • Swell (XRP)

Presently, I think we must be reasonable: clean crypto is logical not going to happen soon because most blockchains utilize confirmation of work conventions for the mining system, which is energy concentrated. However, we could change the connection between cryptographic money and the climate by making little strides. Furthermore, that might acquire armies of Earth-driven financial backers.

Worries about the ecological effect of crypto are developing quickly. Bitcoin, the first and most famous cryptographic money, is intended to be energy-concentrated, all things considered, “mined” by a large number of powerful PCs all over the planet.

It sets fans in a troublesome position. Notwithstanding, if cryptographic money, which is now worth $2 trillion, is the future, this industry, similar to some others, can’t easily overlook environmental change and should accept sustainability. Ether, the second-most famous cryptographic money, utilizes much influence, very much like Bitcoin. However, its engineers are arranging a change to an all the more harmless ecosystem mining strategy and in the later future, we hope we can get green digital currencies. Here’s more on the future of decentralized autonomous networks or DAOs.

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